Oruvail I.M. Injection


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Oruvail I.M. Injection


1. Name Of The Medicinal Product

Oruvail IM Injection

2. Qualitative And Quantitative Composition

In terms of the active ingredient

Ketoprofen BP 100mg in 2 ml.

3. Pharmaceutical Form

Solution for IM injection

4. Clinical Particulars 4.1 Therapeutic Indications

Oruvail injection is recommended in the management of acute exacerbations of:

• Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis.

• Periarticular conditions such as fibrositis, bursitis, capsulitis, tendinitis and tenosynovitis.

• Low back pain of musculoskeletal origin and sciatica.

• Other painful musculoskeletal conditions.

• Acute gout.

• Control of pain and inflammation following orthopaedic surgery.

4.2 Posology And Method Of Administration

Adults: 50 to 100 mg every four hours, repeated up to a maximum of 200 mg in twenty-four hours. Following a satisfactory response, oral therapy should be instituted with ketoprofen capsules. It is recommended that the injection should not normally be continued for longer than three days.

Elderly: The elderly are at increased risk of the serious consequences of adverse reactions. If an NSAID is considered necessary, the lowest effective dose should be used and for the shortest possible duration. The patient should be monitored regularly for GI bleeding during NSAID therapy.

Paediatric dosage: not established.

Oruvail IM Injection is for intramuscular injection only.

Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms (see section 4

4.3 Contraindications

Ketoprofen is contraindicated in patients who have a history of hypersensitivity reactions such as bronchospasm, asthmatic attacks, rhinitis, angioedema, urticaria or other allergic-type reactions to ketoprofen, any other ingredients in this medicine, ASA or other NSAIDs.

Ketoprofen is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to any of the excipients of the drug.

Ketoprofen is also contraindicated in the third trimester of pregnancy.

Ketoprofen is contraindicated in the following cases:

-severe heart failure

-active or history of recurrent peptic ulcer/haemorrhage (two or more distinct episodes of proven ulceration or bleeding)

-haemorrhagic diathesis

-severe hepatic insufficiency

-severe renal insufficiency

-third trimester of pregnancy

Ketoprofen is contraindicated in cases of cerebrovascular bleeding or any other active bleeding.

Ketoprofen is contraindicated in patients with haemostatic disorders or ongoing anticoagulant therapy.

4.4 Special Warnings And Precautions For Use

Oruvail injection is for intramuscular use only.

Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms (see section 4.2 Posology and method of administration, and GI and cardiovascular risks below).

The use of ketoprofen with concomitant NSAIDs including cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors should be avoided (see section 4.5 Interactions).


The elderly have an increased risk of adverse reactions to NSAIDs, especially gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation which may be fatal (see Section 4.2 Posology and method of administration).

Cardiovascular, Renal and Hepatic impairment:

At the start of treatment, renal function must be carefully monitored in patients with heart impairment, heart failure, liver dysfunction, cirrhosis and nephrosis, in patients receiving diuretic therapy, in patients with chronic renal impairment, particularly if the patient is elderly. In these patients, administration of ketoprofen may induce a reduction in renal blood flow caused by prostaglandin inhibition and lead to renal decomposition (see Section 4.3 Contra-indications).

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects

Appropriate monitoring and advice are required for patients with a history of hypertension and/or mild to moderate congestive heart failure as fluid retention and oedema have been reported in association with NSAID therapy.

Clinical trial and epidemiological data suggest that use of some NSAIDs (particularly at high doses and in long-term treatment) may be associated with a small increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke). There are insufficient data to exclude such a risk for ketoprofen.

Respiratory disorders:

Patients with asthma combined with chronic rhinitis, chronic sinusitis, and/or nasal polyposis have a higher risk of allergy to aspirin and/or NSAIDs than the rest of the population. Administration of this medicinal product can cause asthma attacks or bronchospasm, particularly in subjects allergic to aspirin or NSAIDs (see section 4.3).

Gastrointestinal bleeding, ulceration and perforation:

GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation, which can be fatal, has been reported with all NSAIDs at any time during treatment, with or without warning symptoms or a previous history of serious GI events.

Some epidemiological evidence suggests that ketoprofen may be associated with a high risk of serious gastrointestinal toxicity, relative to some other NSAIDs, especially at high doses (see also section 4.2 and 4.3).

The risk of GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation is higher with increasing NSAlD doses, in patients with a history of ulcer, particularly if complicated with haemorrhage or perforation (see section 4.3), and in the elderly. These patients should commence treatment on the lowest dose available. Combination therapy with protective agents (e.g. misoprostol or proton pump inhibitors) should be considered for these patients, and also for patients requiring concomitant low dose aspirin, or other drugs likely to increase gastrointestinal risk (see below and section 4.5).

NSAIDs should only be given with care to patients with a history of gastrointestinal disease (e.g. ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) as these conditions may be exacerbated (see Section 4.8 Undesirable effects).

Patients with a history of gastrointestinal toxicity, particularly when elderly, should report any unusual abdominal symptoms (especially GI bleeding), particularly in the initial stages of treatment.

Caution should be advised in patients receiving concomitant medications which could increase the risk of ulceration or bleeding, such as oral corticosteroids, anticoagulants such as warfarin, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors or anti-platelet agents such as aspirin (see section 4.5).

When GI bleeding or ulceration occurs in patients receiving ketoprofen, the treatment should be withdrawn.

SLE and mixed connective tissue disease:

In patients with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disorders there may be an increased risk of aseptic meningitis (see section 4.8 Undesirable effects).

Impaired female fertility:

The use of ketoprofen, as with other NSAIDs, may impair female fertility and is not recommended in women attempting to conceive. In women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, withdrawal of ketoprofen should be considered.

Skin reactions:

Serious skin reactions, some of them fatal, including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported very rarely in association with the use of NSAlDs (see section 4.8). Patients appear to be at highest risk for these reactions early in the course of therapy, the onset of the reaction occurring in the majority of cases within the first month of treatment. Treatment should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash, mucosal lesions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Infectious disease:

As with other NSAIDs, in the presence of an infectious disease, it should be noted that the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and the antipyretic properties of ketoprofen may mask the usual signs of infection progression such as fever.

Risk of gastrointestinal bleeding: the relative risk increases in subjects who have a low body weight. If gastrointestinal bleeding or ulcer occur, treatment must be discontinued immediately.

Blood counts and liver and kidney function tests should be carried out during long-term treatment.


Hyperkalaemia promoted by diabetes or concomitant treatment with potassium-sparing agents (see section 4.5 Interactions).

Potassium levels must be monitored regularly under these circumstances.

In patients with abnormal liver function tests or with a history of liver disease, transaminase levels should be evaluated periodically, particularly during long-term therapy.

Patients with active or a past history of peptic ulcer.

4.5 Interaction With Other Medicinal Products And Other Forms Of Interaction

Anticoagulants (heparin and warfarin) and platelet aggregation inhibitors (i.e. ticlopidine, clopidogrel):

Increased risk of bleeding (see section 4.4).

If co-administration is unavoidable, patient should be closely monitored


Risk of elevation of lithium plasma levels, sometimes reaching toxic levels due to decreased lithium renal excretion. Where necessary, plasma lithium levels should be closely monitored and the lithium dosage levels adjusted during and after NSAIDs therapy.

Other analgesics/NSAIDs (including cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors) and high dose salicylates:

Avoid concomitant use of two or more NSAIDs (including aspirin) as this may increase the risk of adverse effects, particularly gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding (see section 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use).


Serious interactions have been recorded after the use of high dose methotrexate with NSAIDs, including ketoprofen, due to decreased elimination of methotrexate. At doses greater than 15mg/week: Increased risk of haematologic toxicity of methotrexate, particularly if administered at high doses (> 15mg/week), possibly related to displacement of protein-bound methotrexate and to its decreased renal clearance.

Allow at least 12 hours between the discontinuation or initiation of ketoprofen treatment and the administration of methotrexate.

At doses lower than 15mg/week: During the first weeks of combination treatment, full blood count should be monitored weekly. If there is any alteration of the renal function or if the patient is elderly, monitoring should be done more frequently.


NSAlDs should not be used for 8-12 days after mifepristone administration as NSAlDs can reduce the effect of mifepristone.

Antihypertensive agents (beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretics):

Risk of decreased antihypertensive potency (inhibition of vasodilator prostaglandins by NSAIDs).


Risk of reduced diuretic effect. Patients and particularly dehydrated patients taking diuretics are at a greater risk of developing renal failure secondary to a decrease in renal blood flow caused by prostaglandin inhibition. Such patients should be rehydrated before initiating co-administration therapy and renal function monitored when the treatment is started (see section 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use).

Cardiac glycosides:

NSAlDs may exacerbate cardiac failure, reduce GFR and increase plasma glycoside levels.

Ciclosporin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity, particularly in elderly subjects.

Quinolone antibiotics:

Animal data indicate that NSAlDs can increase the risk of convulsions associated with quinolone antibiotics. Patients taking NSAlDs and quinolones may have an increased risk of developing convulsions.

Tacrolimus: Possible increased risk of nephrotoxicity when NSAIDs are given with tacrolimus, particularly in elderly subjects.


Increased risk of bleeding.

Anti-platelet agents and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): Increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (see section 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use).

ACE inhibitors and Angiotensin II Antagonists:

In patients with compromised renal function (e.g. dehydrated patients or elderly patients the co-administration of an ACE inhibitor or Angiotensin II antagonist and agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase may result in further deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure.


Increased risk of haematological toxicity when NSAlDs are given with zidovudine. There is evidence of an increased risk of haemarthroses and haematoma in HIV(+) haemophiliacs receiving concurrent treatment with zidovudine and ibuprofen.

Risks related to hyperkalaemia:

Certain medicinal products or therapeutic categories can promote hyperkalaemia, i.e. potassium salts, potassium-sparing diuretics, converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, NSAIDs, heparins (low molecular-weight or unfractioned), ciclosporin, tacrolimus and trimethoprim. The occurrence of hyperkalaemia can depend on the presence of co-factors. This risk is enhanced when the drugs mentioned above are administered concomitantly.

Risks related to antiplatelet effect:

Several substances are involved in interactions due to their antiplatelet effects: tirofiban, eptifibarid, abcixiab, and iloprost. The use of several antiplatelet drugs enhances the risk of bleeding.

4.6 Pregnancy And Lactation


Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis may adversely affect the pregnancy and/or the embryo/foetal development. Data from epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of miscarriage and of cardiac malformation and gastroschisis after use of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor in early pregnancy. The absolute risk for cardiovascular malformation was increased from less than 1%, up to approximately 1.5%. The risk is believed to increase with dose and duration of therapy. In animals, administration of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor has been shown to result in increased pre- and post-implantation loss and embryo-foetal lethality. In addition, increased incidences of various malformations, including cardiovascular, have been reported in animals given a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor during the organogenetic period. During the first and second trimester of pregnancy, ketoprofen should not be given unless clearly necessary. If ketoprofen is used by a woman attempting to conceive, or during the first and second trimester of pregnancy, the dose should be kept as low and duration of treatment as short as possible.

During the third trimester of pregnancy, all prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors may expose the foetus to:

- cardiopulmonary toxicity (with premature closure of the ductus arteriosus and pulmonary hypertension);

- renal dysfunction, which may progress to renal failure with oligo-hydroamniosis; the mother and the neonate, at the end of the pregnancy, to:

- possible prolongation of bleeding time, an anti-aggregating effect which may occur even at very low doses.

- Inhibition of uterine contractions resulting in delayed or prolonged labour.

Consequently, ketoprofen is contraindicated during the third trimester of pregnancy.


No data are available on excretion of ketoprofen in human milk. Ketoprofen is not recommended in nursing mothers.

4.7 Effects On Ability To Drive And Use Machines

Patients should be warned about the potential for somnolence, dizziness or convulsions and be advised not to drive or operate machinery if these symptoms occur.

Patients should be warned of possible visual disturbances. If patients experience this, they should not drive or use machines.

4.8 Undesirable Effects

Gastrointestinal: The most commonly observed adverse events are gastrointestinal in nature. Peptic ulcers, perforation or GI bleeding, sometimes fatal, particularly in the elderly, may occur (see section 4.4). Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, flatulence, constipation, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, melaena, haematemesis, ulcerative stomatitis, exacerbation of colitis and Crohn's disease (see section 4.4) have been r3eported following administration. Less frequently, gastritis has been observed. Pancreatitis has been reported very rarely.

Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported following treatment with NSAIDs. These may consist of (a) non-specific allergic reactions and anaphylaxis (b) respiratory tract reactivity comprising asthma, aggravated asthma, bronchospasm or dyspnoea, or (c) assorted skin disorders, including rashes of various types, pruritus, urticaria, purpura, angiodema and, more rarely exfoliative and bullous dermatoses (including epidermal necrolysis and erythema multiforme).

Local reactions can occur and may include pain or a burning sensation. In all cases of major adverse effects Oruvail should be withdrawn at once.

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular:

Oedema, hypertension, and cardiac failure, have been reported in association with NSAID treatment.

Clinical trial and epidemiological data suggest that use of some NSAIDs (particularly at high doses and in long term treatment) may be associated with an increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke) (see section 4.4).

Other adverse reactions reported less commonly include:

Renal: Nephrotoxicity in various forms, including interstitial nephritis, nephritic syndrome and renal failure.

Hepatic: abnormal liver function, hepatitis and jaundice.

Neurological and special senses: Visual disturbances, optic neuritis, headaches, paraesthesia, reports of aseptic meningitis (especially in patients with existing autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease), with symptoms such as stiff neck, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever or disorientation (See section 4.4) , depression, confusion, hallucinations, tinnitus, vertigo, dizziness, malaise, fatigue and drowsiness.

Haematological: Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia and haemolytic anaemia.

Dermatological: Bullous reactions including Stevens Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (very rare). Photosensitivity.

4.9 Overdose


In adults, the principal signs of overdose are headache, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Disorientation, excitation, coma, tinnitus, fainting, occasionally convulsions may also occur. During severe intoxication, hypotension, respiratory depression and gastrointestinal bleeding have been observed.

Adverse effects seen after overdose with propionic acid derivatives such as hypotension, bronchospasm and gastro-intestinal haemorrhage should be anticipated.

In cases of significant poisoning, acute renal failure and liver damage are possible.

Therapeutic measures:

The patient must be transferred immediately to a specialised hospital setting where symptomatic treatment can begin.

There is no specific antidote.

Good urine output should be ensured.

Renal and liver function should be closely monitored.

Frequent or prolonged convulsions should be treated with intravenous diazepam.

Other measures may be indicated by the patient's clinical condition.

5. Pharmacological Properties 5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties

Ketoprofen is a pharmacopoeial non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It is a strong inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase and potent analgesic agent. Studies in vitro and in vivo show that ketoprofen possesses powerful anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antibradykinin and lysosomal membrane stabilising properties.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties

Peak concentrations of approximately 10 mg/L are reached at about 0.5-0.75 H after a 100 mg dose. The elimination half life is approximately 1.88 H. Apart from earlier Tmax values, there are no significant differences between the pharmacokinetics of Oruvail IM injection and conventional release capsules (Orudis).

5.3 Preclinical Safety Data

No additional data of relevance to the prescriber.

6. Pharmaceutical Particulars 6.1 List Of Excipients



Benzyl Alcohol


Citric Acid anhydrous (E330)


Water For Injections


6.2 Incompatibilities

None stated

6.3 Shelf Life

36 months

6.4 Special Precautions For Storage

Store below 30°C. Protect from light.

6.5 Nature And Contents Of Container

Cartons containing 10 ampoules each having 2 ml. of injection.

6.6 Special Precautions For Disposal And Other Handling

None stated

7. Marketing Authorisation Holder


One Onslow Street


Surrey, GU1 4YS, UK

8. Marketing Authorisation Number(S)

PL 04425/0377

9. Date Of First Authorisation/Renewal Of The Authorisation

15 November 2005

10. Date Of Revision Of The Text

11 May 2011



Oruvail I.M. Injection

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