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1. Name Of The Medicinal Product

NIOPAM 300 , solution for injection

2. Qualitative And Quantitative Composition

61.2% w/v Iopamidol equivalent to 300mg iodine/ml.

Each ml contains 612 mg iopamidol.

For excipients, see 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical Form

Solution for injection.

Clear aqueous solution filled into colourless glass ampoules or bottles.

4. Clinical Particulars 4.1 Therapeutic Indications

X-ray contrast medium for use in lumbar and thoraco-cervical myelography, cerebral angiography, peripheral angiography, venography, computer tomography enhancement, urography and arthrography.

4.2 Posology And Method Of Administration

Route of administration:











Lumbar Myelography

Adults 5 - 10 ml

Thoraco-Cervical Myelography

Adults 5 - 10 ml

Cerebral Angiography

Adults 5 - 10 ml *

Children **

Peripheral Arteriography



Adults 20 - 50 ml *

Children **

Adults 20 - 50 ml *

Children **

Do not exceed 250 ml

Computer Tomography Enhancement

Adults: Brain scanning 50 - 100ml

Whole body scanning 40-100ml

Intravenous Urography

Adults 40 - 80 ml

In severe renal failure the usual high dose methods should be employed. (up to 1.5 mg/kg)

Children 1 - 2.5 mg/kg or **


Adults 1 - 10 ml according to the joint being examined.

* repeat as necessary; ** according to body size and age;

Single injection volume depends on the vascular area to be examined.

Elderly: dosage as for adults. The lowest effective dose should be used.

Method of administration

No other drugs should be mixed with the contrast medium.

Lumbar myelography

A slow sub-arachnoid injection is made through a fine lumbar puncture needle into one of the lower lumbar interspinous spaces (L3-L4 or L4-L5). Optimum contrast appears immediately after injections and films should be obtained promptly.

Thoraco-cervical myelography

Following a slow sub-arachnoid injection the patient should be turned on his side and tilted 10°-20° head down under fluoroscopic control. In this manner it is possible to control movement of the contrast medium column into the dorsal region.

If the cervical region is to be examined, the contrast medium should be run into the cervical region first, before the examination of the dorsal areas where it is progressively diluted.

Niopam may also be injected sub-occipitally or by lateral cervical puncture technique. Care should be taken to ensure that the contrast medium does not move intracranially.

Following intrathecal use, the patient should rest with the head and chest elevated for one hour and be kept well hydrated. Thereafter, he/she may ambulate carefully but bending down be avoided. If remaining in bed, the head and chest should be kept elevated for 6 hours. Patients suspected of having a low seizure threshold should be observed during this period.

Cerebral angiography

Any of the current techniques is suitable for radiological visualisation of the cerebral vasculature with Niopam 300. Carotid and vertebral angiography, performed by catheterisation or percutaneous injection techniques, require rapid injection, which, if necessary may be repeated.

Peripheral arteriography and phlebography (venography)

Percutaneous injection into the appropriate blood vessel is used for visualisation of peripheral arteries and veins.

Computer tomography enhancement

Contrast enhancement for brain scans can be achieved between one and three minutes after i.v. injection. Niopam 200, 300 and 340 are also used for total body scanning examinations after i.v. administration as a bolus, as a drip infusion or by a combination of the two methods.


The contrast medium is injected intravenously and rapidly eliminated through the kidneys. In patients with severe renal failure, high dose urography should be used.


Visualisation of joint cavities and articular surfaces can be achieved by either single or double contrast examination.

4.3 Contraindications

Use in patients with proven or suspected hypersensitivity to iodine containing preparations of this type.

Because of overdosage considerations, immediate repeat myelography in the event of technical failure is contraindicated.

4.4 Special Warnings And Precautions For Use

A positive history of allergy, asthma or untoward reaction during previous similar investigations indicates a need for extra caution; the benefit should clearly outweigh the risk in such patients. Appropriate resuscitative measures should be immediately available.

X-ray examination of women should if possible be conducted during the pre-ovulation phase of the menstrual cycle and should be avoided during pregnancy.

When examining small children or babies, do not limit fluid intake before administering a hypertonic contrast solution. Also, correct any existing water and electrolyte imbalance.

Care should be exercised in carrying out radiographic procedures with contrast media in patients with severe functional impairment of the liver or myocardium, severe systemic disease and in myelomatosis (including Waldenstr?ms macroglobulinemia, multiple myeloma). In the latter condition patients should not be exposed to dehydration; similarly abnormalities of fluid or electrolyte balance should be corrected prior to use.

Particular care should also be exercised in patients with moderate to severe impairment of renal function (as reflected by a raised blood urea) or in diabetes. Substantial deterioration in renal function is minimised if the patient is well hydrated. Renal function parameters should be monitored after the procedure in these patients.

Patients with severe hepato-renal insufficiency should not be examined unless absolutely indicated. Re-examination should be delayed for 5-7 days.

Niopam should be administered with caution in elderly patients and patients with increased intracranial pressure or suspicion of intracranial tumour, abscess or haematoma, and in those with a history of epilepsy, severe cardiovascular disease, renal impairment, chronic alcoholism or multiple sclerosis.

Patients with these conditions have an increased risk of neurological complications.

General anaesthesia may be indicated in selected patients. However, a higher incidence of adverse reactions has been reported in these patients, probably due to the hypotensive effect of the anaesthetic.

Contrast media may promote sickling in individuals who are homozygous for sickle cell disease when injected intravenously and intra-arterially.

Patients with phaeochromocytoma may develop severe hypertensive crisis following intravascular Niopam. Premedication with ?-receptor blockers is recommended.

The administration of iodinated contrast media may aggravate the symptoms of myasthenia gravis.

Patients with congestive heart failure should be observed for several hours following the procedure to detect delayed haemodynamic disturbances, which may be associated with a transitory increase in the circulating osmotic load. All other patients should be observed for at least one hour after the procedure, as most of the adverse events occur in this period. The patient should also be informed that allergic reactions may develop up to several days after the procedure; in such case, a physician should be consulted immediately.

In neonates, and particularly in premature neonates, it is recommended that tests of thyroid function (typically TSH and T4), should be checked 7-10 days and 1 month after the administration of iodinated contrast media because of the risk of hypothyroidism due to iodine overload.

In patients scheduled for thyroid examination with a radioactive iodine tracer, one must take into consideration that iodine uptake in the thyroid gland will be reduced for several days (up to two weeks) after dosing with an iodinized contrast medium that is eliminated through the kidneys.

Local tissue irritation can occur as an event of perivascular infiltration.


In patients who are known epileptics or have a history of epilepsy, anticonvulsant therapy should be maintained before and following myelographic procedures. In some instances anticonvulsant therapy may be increased for 48 hours before the examination.

Neuroleptics must be absolutely avoided because they lower the seizure threshold. The same applies to analgesics, antiemetics, antihistamines and sedatives of the phenothiazine group. Whenever possible, treatment with such drugs should be discontinued at least 48 hours before administration of the contrast medium and not be resumed less than 12 hours after completion of the procedure.


In patients undergoing angiocardiographic procedures special attention should be paid to the status of the right heart and pulmonary circulation. Right heart insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension may precipitate bradycardia and systemic hypotension, when the organic iodine solution is injected. Right heart angiography should be carried out only when absolutely indicated.

In angiographic procedures, the possibility of dislodging plaque or damaging or perforating the vessel wall should be considered during catheter manipulation and contrast medium injection. Test injections to ensure proper catheter placements are recommended.

Angiography should be avoided whenever possible in patients with homocystinuria due to an increased risk of thrombosis and embolism.

In patients undergoing peripheral angiography, there should be pulsation in the artery into which the X-ray contrast medium will be injected. In patients with thromboangiitis obliterans or ascending infections in combination with serious ischemia the angiography should be performed, if at all, with special caution.

In patients undergoing venography, special caution should be exercised in patients with suspected phlebitis, serious ischaemia, local infections, or a complete venous occlusion. Serious neurological events have been observed following direct injection of contrast media into cerebral arteries or vessels supplying the spinal cord or in angiocardiography due to inadvertent filling of the carotids.

In paediatric roentgenology, one should proceed with great caution when injecting the contrast medium into the right heart chambers of cyanotic neonates with pulmonary hypertension and impaired cardiac function.

In examinations of the aortic arch the tip of the catheter should be positioned carefully to avoid hypotension, bradycardia and CNS injury due to excess pressure transmitted from the injector pump to the brachiocephalic branches of the aorta.


Care should be exercised in patients with moderate to severe impairment of renal function (as reflected by a raised blood urea). Substantial deterioration in renal function is minimized if the patient is well hydrated. Renal function parameters, especially urinary output should be monitored after the examination in these patients.

Re-examination should be delayed 5-7 days.

Non-ionic contrast media have less anti-coagulant activity in-vitro than ionic media. Meticulous attention should therefore be paid to angiographic technique. Non-ionic media should not be allowed to remain in contact with blood in the syringe and intravascular catheters should be flushed frequently, to minimise the risk of clotting, which rarely has led to serious thromboembolic complications after procedures.

Niopam should be used with caution in patients with hyperthyroidism. It is possible that hyperthyroidism may recur in patients previously treated for Graves' disease.

The presence of renal damage in diabetic patients is one of the factors predisposing to renal impairment following contrast media administration. This may precipitate lactic acidosis in patients who are taking metformin. As a precaution, metformin should be discontinued at the time of, or prior to, the procedure and withheld for 48 hours subsequent to the procedure and re-instituted only after renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be normal.

4.5 Interaction With Other Medicinal Products And Other Forms Of Interaction

Thyroid function tests: use of iodinated contrast media may interfere with tests for thyroid function which depend on iodine estimations, such as Protein Binding Iodine and radioactive iodine uptake. As a consequence they will not accurately reflect thyroid function for up to 16 days following administration of iodinated contrast media. Thyroid function tests not depending on iodine estimations, e.g. T3 resin uptake and total or free thyroxine (T4) assays are not affected.

No other specific interference with physiological functions have been noted.

The administration of an X-ray contrast medium in diabetic patients with nephropathy who are taking biguanides may precipitate lactic acidosis.

Arterial thrombosis has been reported when iopamidol was given following papaverine.

The administration of vasopressors strongly potentiate the neurological effect of the intra-arterial contrast media.

Contrast media may interfere with laboratory tests for bilirubin, proteins or inorganic substances (eg iron, copper, calcium, phosphate). These substances should not be assayed during the same day following the administration of contrast media.

4.6 Pregnancy And Lactation

X-ray examination of women should if possible be conducted during the pre-ovulation phase of the menstrual cycle and should be avoided during pregnancy ; also, since it has not been demonstrated that Niopam is safe for use in pregnant women, it should be administered only if the procedure is considered essential by the physician.

Niopam is poorly excreted in human milk. From animal experience, Niopam is non toxic in animals after oral administration. Although, no serious adverse reactions have been reported in nursing infants, Niopam should be administered to lactating women only if considered essential by the physician.

4.7 Effects On Ability To Drive And Use Machines

There is no known effect on the ability to drive and operate machines. However, because of the risk of early reactions, driving or operating machinery is not advisable for one hour following the last injection.

4.8 Undesirable Effects

The use of iodinated contrast media may cause untoward side effects. They are usually mild to moderate and transient in nature. However , severe and life threatening reactions sometimes leading to death have been reported.

Anaphylaxis (anaphylactoid reactions/hypersensitivity) may manifest with: mild localized or more diffuse angioneurotic oedema, tongue oedema, laryngospasm or laryngeal oedema, dysphagia, pharyngitis and throat tightness, pharyngolaryngeal pain, cough, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, sneezing, feeling hot, sweating increased, asthenia, dizziness, pallor, dyspnoea, wheezing, bronchospasm, and moderate hypotension. Skin reactions may occur in the form of various types of rash, diffuse erythema, diffuse blisters, urticaria, and pruritus. These reactions, which occur irrespective of the dose administered and the route of administration, may represent the first signs of incipient state of shock. Administration of the contrast medium must be discontinued immediately and – if necessary – specific treatment initiated via a venous access.

More severe reactions involving the cardiovascular system such as vasodilatation with pronounced hypotension, tachycardia, dyspnoea, agitation, cyanosis and loss of consciousness (syncope) may require emergency treatment.

Intravascular administration –Adults

The safety of Iopamidol injection through intravascular administration was evaluated in 2,548 adult patients involved in clinical trials.

The adverse reactions are classified by System Organ Class and frequency, using the following convention: Very common (

System Organ Class

Adverse Reactions


Clinical Trials

Post-marketing Surveillance








Frequency unknown


Blood and lymphatic system disorders



Immune system disorders


Anaphylaxis, Anaphylactoid reaction

Psychiatric disorders


Confusional state


Nervous system disorders


Dizziness, Taste alteration


Coma, Transient ischaemic attack, Syncope, Depressed level of consciousness or loss of consciousness, Convulsion,

Eye disorders


transient blindness, Visual disturbance, Conjunctivitis, Photophobia

Cardiac disorders


Cardiac dysrhythmias such as extrasystoles, atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation*


Myocardial ischaemia or infarction, Cardiac failure, Cardio-respiratory arrest, Tachycardia

Vascular disorders


Hypotension, Hypertension, Flushing


Circulatory collapse or shock

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders


Pulmonary oedema, Asthma, Bronchospasm

Respiratory arrest, Respiratory failure, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Respiratory distress, Apnoea, Laryngeal oedema, Dyspnoea

Gastrointestinal disorders


Vomiting, Diarrhea, Abdominal pain, Dry mouth


Salivary hypersecretion, Salivary gland enlargement

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders


Rash, Urticaria, Pruritus, Erythema, Sweating increased


Face oedema, muco-cutaneous syndromes **

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders


Back pain

Muscle spasms

Musculoskeletal pain, Muscular weakness

Renal and urinary disorders


Acute renal failure


General disorders and administration site conditions

Feeling hot

Chest pain, Injection site pain***, Pyrexia, Feeling cold


Rigors, Pain, Malaise



Blood creatinine increased


Electrocardiogram change including ST segment depression

* Cardiac reactions may occur as consequences of the coronary catheterization procedural hazard: these complications include coronary artery thrombosis and coronary artery embolism.

** As with other iodinated contrast media, very rare cases of muco-cutaneous syndromes, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell syndrome) and erythema multiforme, have been reported following the administration of Iopamidol

*** Injection site pain and swelling may occur. In the majority of cases it is due to extravasation of contrast medium. These reactions are usually transient and result in recovery without sequelae. However, inflammation and even skin necrosis have been seen on very rare occasions. In isolated reports extravasation led to the development of compartment syndrome

Intravascular administration – Pediatric Population

Frequency type and severity of adverse reactions in children are similar to those in adults.

Intrathecal administration - Adults

The safety of Iopamidol injection through intrathecal administration was evaluated in 132 adult patients .

System Organ Class

Adverse Reactions


Clinical Trials

Post-marketing Surveillance


Very common






Frequency unknown


Infections and infestations


Meningitis aseptic, Meningitis bacterial as consequence of the procedural hazard

Immune system disorders


Anaphylaxis, Anaphylactoid reaction*

Psychiatric disorders


Confusional state, Disorientation, Agitation, Restlessness

Nervous system disorders



Coma, Paralysis, Convulsion, Syncope, Depressed level of consciousness or loss of consciousness, Meningism,Dizziness, Paraesthesia, Hypoaesthesia

Eye disorders


Transient blindness

Cardiac disorders



Vascular disorders





Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders


Respiratory arrest, Dyspnoea

Gastrointestinal disorders


Nausea, Vomiting


Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders




Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders


Back pain, Neck pain, Pain in extremity, Sensation of heaviness


General disorders and administration site conditions


Pyrexia, Malaise, Rigors

* Anaphylaxis (anaphylactoid reactions/hypersensitivity) may occur. Anaphylactoid reactions with circulatory disturbances such as severe blood pressure decrease leading to syncope or cardiac arrest and life threatening shock are much less common after intrathecal administration than after intravascular administration.

Body cavity administration

The majority of the reactions occur some hours after the contrast administration due to the slow absorption from the area of administration and distribution in the whole organism.

The reactions reported in cases of arthrography usually represent irritative manifestations superimposed on existing tissue inflammation.

Systemic hypersensitivity is rare, generally mild and in the form of skin reactions. However, the possibility of severe anaphylactoid reactions cannot be excluded.

4.9 Overdose

Treatment of overdosage is directed toward the support of all vital functions and the elimination of the contrast medium while maintaining the patient well hydrated.

If needed, hemodyalisis can be used to eliminate iopamidol from the body.

5. Pharmacological Properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group; ATC code: V08A B04

5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties

Iopamidol is contrast medium belonging to the new generation of non-ionic compound whose solubility is due to the presence of hydrophilic substitutes in the molecule. This results in a solution of low osmolality when compared with ionic media.

Iopamidol has been shown to be effective as an X-ray contrast medium in neuroradiology, angiography, venography, arthrography, urography, cerebral angiography and left ventriculography and coronary arteriography. Its toxicity particularly cardiac and CNS toxicity are less than those of ionic contrast media.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties

The pharmacokinetics of iopamidol conform to an open two compartment pharmacokinetic model with first order elimination.

Distribution volume is equivalent to extracellular fluid.

Elimination is almost completely through the kidneys. Less that 1% of the administered dose has been recovered in the faeces up to 72 hours after dosing. Elimination is rapid; up to half the administered dose may be recovered in the urine in the first two hours of dosing.

There is no evidence of biotransformation.

Serum protein binding is negligible.

5.3 Preclinical Safety Data

No adverse effects can be predicted from animal toxicology studies other than those documented from human use of iopamidol.

6. Pharmaceutical Particulars 6.1 List Of Excipients

Excipients are trometamol, hydrochloric acid and edetate calcium disodium.

6.2 Incompatibilities

No other drug should be mixed with the contrast medium.

6.3 Shelf Life

5 years.

6.4 Special Precautions For Storage

Protect from light.

6.5 Nature And Contents Of Container

10ml clear, colourless Type I glass ampoules.

20 and 30ml clear, colourless Type I or Type II glass vials with rubber closures and aluminium caps.

20, 50, 70, 100, 200 and 250ml clear, colourless Type I or Type II glass bottles with rubber closures and aluminium caps.

6.6 Special Precautions For Disposal And Other Handling

Discard if the solution is not clear of particulate matter.

Exceptionally, the event of crystallisation of Niopam could occur. It has been shown that such a phenomenon is caused by a damaged or defective container and therefore the product should not be used in this case.

The bottle, once opened, must be used immediately.

Any residue of contrast medium must be discarded.

Niopam, as other iodinated contrast media, can react with metallic surfaces containing copper (e.g. brass), therefore the use of equipment, in which the product comes into direct contact with such surfaces, should be avoided.

7. Marketing Authorisation Holder

Bracco U.K. Ltd,

Bracco House, Mercury Park,

Wycombe Lane, Wooburn Green,

Buckinghamshire HP10 OHH

8. Marketing Authorisation Number(S)

PL 18920/0009

9. Date Of First Authorisation/Renewal Of The Authorisation

22nd March 1982/ 9th January 2002

10. Date Of Revision Of The Text

15 November 2011


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