Furadantin tablets 100mg
 

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1. Name Of The Medicinal Product

Furadantin® tablets 100mg

Nitrofurantoin 100mg tablets

2. Qualitative And Quantitative Composition

Furadantin tablets contain 100mg Nitrofurantoin Ph Eur.

3. Pharmaceutical Form

Furadantin tablets are yellow and pentagonal. Each tablet has a break line on one face and the tablet strength on the opposite face.

4. Clinical Particulars 4.1 Therapeutic Indications

For the treatment of and prophylaxis against acute or recurrent, uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections or pyelitis either spontaneous or following surgical procedures.

Nitrofurantoin is specifically indicated for the treatment of infections, when due to susceptible strains of Escherichia co/i, Enterococci, Staphylococci, Citrobacter, Kiebsiella and Enterobacter.

4.2 Posology And Method Of Administration

Dosage:

Adults

Acute Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections: 50mg four times daily for seven days

Severe Chronic Recurrence: 100mg four times day for seven days

Long Term Suppression: 50mg - 100mg once a day.

Pophylaxis: 50mg four times daily for the duration of procedure and 3 days thereafter.

Children and Infants over three months of age

Acute Urinary Tract Infections: 3mg/kg/day in four divided doses for seven days.

Suppressive: 1mg/kg, once a day.

For children under 25kg body weight consideration should be given to the use of Furadantin® Suspension.

Elderly

Provided there is no significant renal impairment, in which Nitrofurantoin is contraindicated, the dosage should be that for any normal adult. See precaution and risks to elderly patients associated with long-term therapy (Section 4.8).

4.3 Contraindications

Patients suffering from renal dysfunction with a creatinine clearance of less than 60ml/minute or elevated serum creatinine.

In infants under three months of age as well as pregnant patients at term (during labour and delivery) because of the theoretical possibility of haemolytic anaemia in the foetus or in the new-born infant, due to immature erythrocyte enzyme systems.

Patients with known hypersensitivity to Nitrofurantoin or other nitrofurans.

4.4 Special Warnings And Precautions For Use

Nitrofurantoin is not effective for the treatment of parenchymal infections of unilaterally non-functioning kidney. A surgical cause for infection should be excluded in recurrent or severe cases.

Since pre-existing conditions may mask adverse reactions, Nitrofurantoin should be used with caution in patients with pulmonary disease, hepatic dysfunction, neurological disorders, and allergic diathesis.

Peripheral neuropathy and susceptibility to peripheral neuropathy, which may become severe or irreversible, has occurred and may be life threatening. Therefore, treatment should be stopped at the first signs of neural involvement (paraesthesiae).

Nitrofurantoin should be used in caution with patients with anaemia, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, debilitating conditions and vitamin B (particularly folate) deficiency.

Acute, subacute and chronic pulmonary reactions have been observed in patients treated with nitrofurantoin. If these reactions occur, nitrofurantoin should be discontinued immediately.

Chronic pulmonary reactions (including pulmonary fibrosis and diffuse interstitial pneumonitis) can develop insidiously, and may occur commonly in elderly patients. Close monitoring of the pulmonary condition of patients receiving long-term therapy is warranted (especially in the elderly).

Patients should be monitored closely for signs of hepatitis (particularly in long-term use). Urine may be coloured yellow or brown after taking Nitrofurantoin. Patients on Nitrofurantoin are susceptible to false positive urinary glucose (If tested for reducing substances)

Nitrofurantoin should be discontinued at any sign of haemolysis in those with suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydogenase deficiency.

Gastrointestinal reactions may be minimised by taking the drug with food or milk, or by adjustment of dosage.

For long-term treatment, monitor patients closely for evidence of hepatitis or pulmonary symptoms or other evidence of toxicity.

Discontinue treatment with Nitrofurantoin if otherwise unexplained pulmonary, hepatic, haematological or neurological syndromes occur.

4.5 Interaction With Other Medicinal Products And Other Forms Of Interaction

1. Increased absorption with food or agents delaying gastric emptying.

2. Decreased absorption with magnesium trisilicate.

3. Decreased renal excretion of Nitrofurantoin by probenecid and sulphinpyrazone.

4. Decreased anti-bacterial activity by carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and urine alkalisation.

5. Anti-bacterial antagonism by quinolone anti-infectives.

6. Interference with some tests for glucose in urine

4.6 Pregnancy And Lactation

Animal studies with Nitrofurantoin have shown no teratogenic effects. Nitrofurantoin has been in extensive use since 1952, and its suitability in human pregnancy has been well documented. However, as with all other drugs, the maternal side effects may adversely affect course of pregnancy. The drug should be used at the lowest dose as appropriate for specific indication, only after careful assessment.

Nitrofurantoin is however contraindicated in infants under three months of age and in pregnant women during labour and delivery, because of the possible risk of haemolysis of the infants' immature red cells. Caution should be exercised while breast-feeding an infant known or suspected to have an erythrocyte enzyme deficiency, since Nitrofurantoin is detected in trace amounts in breast milk.

4.7 Effects On Ability To Drive And Use Machines

Nitrofurantoin may cause dizziness and drowsiness and the patient should not drive or operate machinery if affected this way.

4.8 Undesirable Effects

Respiratory

If any of the following respiratory reactions occur the drug should be discontinued.

Acute pulmonary reactions usually occur within the first week of treatment and are reversible with cessation of therapy. Acute pulmonary reactions are commonly manifested by fever, chills, cough, chest pain, dyspnoea, pulmonary infiltration with consolidation or pleural effusion on chest x-ray, and eosinophilia. In subacute pulmonary reactions, fever and eosinophilia occur less often than in the acute form.

Chronic pulmonary reactions occur rarely in patients who have received continuous therapy for six months or longer and are more common in elderly patients. Changes in ECG have occurred, associated with pulmonary reactions.

Minor symptoms such as fever, chills, cough and dyspnoea may be significant. Collapse and cyanosis have been reported rarely. The severity of chronic pulmonary reactions and their degree of resolution appear to be related to the duration of therapy after the first clinical signs appear. It is important to recognise symptoms as early as possible. Pulmonary function may be impaired permanently, even after cessation of therapy.

Hepatic

Hepatic reactions including cholestatic jaundice and chronic active hepatitis occur rarely. Fatalities have been reported. Cholestatic jaundice is generally associated with short-term therapy (usually up to two weeks). Chronic active hepatitis, occasionally leading to hepatic necrosis is generally associated with long-term therapy (usually after six months). The onset may be insidious. Treatment should be stopped at the first sign of hepatotoxicity.

Neurological

Peripheral neuropathy (including optical neuritis) with symptoms of sensory as well as motor involvement, which may become severe or irreversible, has been reported infrequently. Less frequent reactions of unknown causal relationship are depression, euphoria, confusion, psychotic reactions, nystagmus, vertigo, dizziness, asthenia, headache and drowsiness. Treatment should be stopped at the first sign of neurological involvement.

Gastrointestinal

Nausea and anorexia have been reported. Emesis, abdominal pain and diarrhoea are less common gastrointestinal reactions.

Haematological

Agranulocytosis, leucopenia, granulocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, megaloblastic anaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency anaemia, and eosinophilia have been reported. Aplastic anaemia has been reported rarely. Cessation of therapy has generally returned the blood picture to normal.

Hypersensitivity

Allergic skin reactions manifesting as angioneurotic oedema, maculopapular, erythematous or eczematous eruptions, urticaria, rash, and pruritis have occurred.

Lupus-like syndrome associated with pulmonary reactions to Nitrofurantoin has been reported.

Exfoliative dermatitis and erythema multiforme (including Stevens- Johnson Syndrome) have been reported rarely.

Other hypersensitivity reactions include anaphylaxis, sialadenitis, pancreatitis, drug fever and arthralgia.

Miscellaneous

Transient alopecia and benign intracranial hypertension. As with other antimicrobial agents, superinfections by fungi or resistant organisms such as Pseudomonas may occur.

However, these are limited to the genitourinary tract because suppression of normal bacterial flora does not occur elsewhere in the body.

4.9 Overdose

Symptoms and signs of overdose include gastric irritation, nausea and vomiting. There is no known specific antidote. However, Nitrofurantoin can be haemodialysed in cases of recent ingestion. Standard treatment is by induction of emesis or by gastric lavage. Monitoring of full blood count, liver function, and pulmonary function tests are recommended. A high fluid intake should be maintained to promote urinary excretion of the drug.

5. Pharmacological Properties 5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties

Furadantin is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, active against the majority of urinary pathogens. The wide range of organisms sensitive to the bactericidal activity include:

Escherichia coli

Enterococcus Faecalis

Klebsiella Species

Enterobacter Species

Staphylococcus Species, e.g. S.Aureus, S.Saprophyticus, S.Epidermidis

Citrobacter Species

Clinically most common urinary pathogens are sensitive to Nitrofurantoin. Most strains of Proteus and Serratia are resistant. All pseudomonas strains are resistant.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties

Orally administered Nitrofurantoin is readily absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract and is rapidly excreted in the urine. Blood concentrations at therapeutic dosages are usually low with an elimination half-life of about 30 minutes.

Maximum urinary excretion usually occurs 2-4 hours after administration of Nitrofurantoin. Urinary drug dose recoveries of about 40-45% are obtained.

5.3 Preclinical Safety Data

Carcinogenic effect of Nitrofurantoin in animal studies was observed. However, human data and extensive use of Nitrofurantoin over 50 years do not support such observation.

6. Pharmaceutical Particulars 6.1 List Of Excipients

Furadantin tablets also contain lactose, maize starch, talc, alginic acid and magnesium stearate and purified water.

6.2 Incompatibilities

None known.

6.3 Shelf Life

Three years.

6.4 Special Precautions For Storage

The tablets are packaged in light-proof and moisture-resistant containers. Storage temperatures must not exceed 25┬░C.

6.5 Nature And Contents Of Container

Furadantin tablets are supplied in packs of 30 and 100 tablets.

6.6 Special Precautions For Disposal And Other Handling

Used as directed by physician. A Patient Information Leaflet is provided with details of use and handling of the product.

7. Marketing Authorisation Holder

Goldshield Pharmaceuticals Limited

NLA Tower

12-16 Addiscombe Road

Croydon

CR0 0XT

United Kingdom.

8. Marketing Authorisation Number(S)

PL 12762/0051 (100mg tablets)

9. Date Of First Authorisation/Renewal Of The Authorisation

31/03/2000.

10. Date Of Revision Of The Text

13/08/2010







Furadantin tablets 100mg

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